Developments in Critical Systems Theory: On Paradigms and Incommensurability


  • Todd David Bowers, PhD Universidad del Norte


multimethodology, systems theory, critical systems thinking, paradigm incommensurability


This paper is an investigation of the still unresolved issue of onto-epistemologically incommensurable paradigms. It chronicles several developments in systems thinking which attempt to incorporate multimethodological approaches to systemic research, design and practice into theories which explain and justify them. With the advantage of hindsight, this research explains how each newly developed theory reflected an increased sophistication of what it means to act multimethodologically, across paradigms. Improvements result from active debates and rigourous criticism between members of the systems community laying open newly discovered shortcomings in contemporary Critical Systems theory. 

Author Biography

Todd David Bowers, PhD, Universidad del Norte

Teaching and research.



How to Cite

Bowers, PhD, T. D. (2014). Developments in Critical Systems Theory: On Paradigms and Incommensurability. Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the ISSS - 2014 United States, 1(1). Retrieved from



Critical Systems Theory and Practice