A Delicate Balance: the Interdependence of Natural, Artefactual, and Human System

Noam Cook


Governing the anthropocene entails, in part, constituting a delicate balance among distinct types of systems. Building on the work of Sir Geoffrey Vickers, I identify three types of systems-natural, artefactual, and human. Each has its own requirements for stability and sustainability. Together they have further requirements for functioning interdependently, particularly in any form we ought to consider desirable.


I outline some of what these concepts suggest, and argue that

understanding stability, sustainability, and interdependence in cybersystemic terms may put us in a better position not only to govern the anthropocene, but to govern it more responsibly.


I explore some practical implications of this view in comparing major water projects in Singapore and California. 

Full Text: