Developments in Critical Systems Theory: On Paradigms and Incommensurability

Todd David Bowers, PhD


This paper is an investigation of the still unresolved issue of onto-epistemologically incommensurable paradigms. It chronicles several developments in systems thinking which attempt to incorporate multimethodological approaches to systemic research, design and practice into theories which explain and justify them. With the advantage of hindsight, this research explains how each newly developed theory reflected an increased sophistication of what it means to act multimethodologically, across paradigms. Improvements result from active debates and rigourous criticism between members of the systems community laying open newly discovered shortcomings in contemporary Critical Systems theory. 


multimethodology; systems theory; critical systems thinking; paradigm incommensurability

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