Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the ISSS - 2010, Waterloo, Canada, Proceedings of the 54th Meeting of the International Society for the Systems Sciences

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Associations for the Reciprocal and Mutual Sharing of Advantages and DisAdvantages

Pierre Bricage


To survive the living systems must to eat and not to be eaten. But, soon or late, every one is eaten The law of the strongest is not-at-all the best ! The only way to escape from the struggle is to enter into an Association for the Reciprocal and Mutual Sharing of Advantages and DisAdvantages (ARMSADA). A lichen which is both an organism and an ecosystem, a cell which is also an ecosystem and an endosyncenosis (ceno: to meet and fuse, syn: into a system, endo: with a new internal structural and functional organisation), both are ARMSADAs. Every ARMSADA merges when the partners do lose simultaneously the capacity to kill the other one(s). In the new Whole, all that is an advantage for a partner is a disadvantage for the other one(s) The ôparcenersô are fused together ôfor the best and for the worstö. The benefits are only for their Wholeness which expresses new ôabilitiesö The synthesis of the myelin, in the case of the neurone, emerges from the ôunity through diversityô between a population of Schwann's cells and a giant cellular body. The nitrogen fixation of the legumes' nodes emerges from the fusion of a population of Monera with -and within- an organism. The eukaryotic cell has emerged from the help of a RNA virus from a microbial mat of Monera In their new endophysiotope (endo: internal, tope: space, physio: of functioning), the ôparcenersô are absolutely dependant from each others. But, through the iteration of the process of new ARMSADAs' emerging, the new -more and more complex- ôsystem-of-systemsö is, more and more, independent of its ecoexotope (exo: external, tope: space, eco: of inhabitation) The endophysiotope of a i level of organisation is the ecoexotope of previous i-n levels. So the Whole is also less and more than the sum of its parts: because of the semi-autonomy of the parceners, simultaneously abilities of the previous levels are lost and new are gained There is never advantages without disadvantages. To survive is to turn disadvantages into advantages and to avoid advantages turning into disadvantages. The systemic disfunctioning of its ARMSADA explains the apoptosis of the cell. That is the result of the death of one endangered internal partner (the monere parts: the population of mitochondria or the nucleus) which results into the death of the endosyncenosis. Cancer also is a breaking of the cell's ARMSADA Cells that should have to die, because of external dangers, ôthanksö to the escape of internal dormant viruses do not. Through this metamorphosis - their new endophysiotope survives but their previous ecoexotope, the organism, is altered and endangered. Into an ARMSADA each partner can survive only if the other ones survive first. Man is not an exception

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