Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the ISSS - 2007, Tokyo, Japan, Papers: 51st Annual Meeting

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Problem Structuring Diagram-A System Technology in aid of Collaborative Creation-

Koichi Haruna


Collaborative creation process for concept-making by autonomous constituents needs structural approach, since it is such a complex process as many-sided, collaborative, multi-layered, plural, integrative, as well as time-inversive.
In the book "the illusion of the postmodernism", Terry Eagleton, while appreciating the ideas such as multiplicity、non-identity、transgression, anti-foundationalism、cultural relativism, criticizes the thought of structuralism and postmodernism by writing “It is as though by pressing a sort of technological determinism all the way through to the mind itself, treating individuals as the mere empty locus of impersonal codes, it imitated the way modern society actually treats them but pretends it does not, thus endorsing its logic while unmasking its ideals.” It is critical to the structural concept-making process, too.
This paper proposes a process by integrating three different ways of thinking, Harold Lasswell’s way in the social policy process, both ways of individual’s creation process of Mo-Ho Chih-Kuan (Wonder of Calm and Contemplation) by The Great Teacher of T’ien T’ai, Chi-I and of Charles S. Peirce’s, and the structural phenomenological way that observes social process in "relations", into a systemic process, that uses a structural expression of the problematique, named as “PROBLEM STRUCTURING DIAGRAM” for collaborative policy development of emergent technologies.
As the main constituent is not beforehand specified, but the growth (enlightenment) and the establishment (self-judgment to participate) of the main constituents is left to the participant’s free judgment, the proposed process is responsible both for technological -innovation-ism (or global capitalism) and for liberal humanism (or democracy).
This paper, in the first, aims at that those three processes of the Peirce’s, Chi-I’s and Lasswell’s has the same three phases of observation, discovery of the alternatives, and judgment.
Secondly, it appreciates Chi-I‘s “Calm and Contemplation” model because of two reasons. One is that it is based upon structural relations among four truths of Suffering (effects), Origination(cause), The path to this Liberation, and its principle to Extinct. The second is that a creation process “relief” that consists of enlightenment and liberation is explained as a mutual influencing process between problems(sufferings)-findings and value-shaping, where the worldly desire, that is ignorance, sensory desire (for gratification), craving for (self) existence, and attachment to views (opinions), and the willpower to overcome those desires influences each others and also the influences are affected by such behavioural/environmental factors as physical conditions, historical backgrounds, and contingencies. Moreover, the idea requires conformity between the grasped problematique, which are based on structural understanding of four truths, and the practicality of the constituents concerned, which is the behavioural property of mental capability of problem grasping and value shaping.
This mutual influencing process, from a sociological point of view, is a social process that consists of "the appearance of the main constituent" and "his/her establishment.". 
The understandings of policy-making process as mentioned above gives a way of reinforcing the lack of the idea and the way of integrating the complex system (many-sided, collaborative, multi-layered, plural, integrative), which are the defect of the structural approach. Since the process more precisely clarifies the roles of behavioral factors in individual’s creation process, the counterparts in organizational creation process, that is, the qualities of the organization’s context can be clarified. As the result, Lasswell’s policy process which projects a social process into a decision process based on the value-shaping process with an experience-based social/organizational context merges with structural approach and becomes appropriate for the process with autonomous constituents.
“PROBLEM STRUCTURING DIAGRAM” is a visualization tool to support conformity analysis of structural problematique-grasping with practicality of the constituents in organizational creation process with three-phased activities of observation, discovery and judgment.

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